Important Articles of the Constitution

Important Articles of the Constitution

Part I. Arts. 1–4 The Union and its territory.

Part II. Arts. 5–11 Citizenship

Part III. Fundamental Rights

Art. 12 Definition.

Art. 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights, Right to Equality.

Right to Equality

Art. 14 Equality before law.

Art. 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds on religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Art. 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

Art. 17 Abolition of untouchability.

Art. 18 Abolition of titles, Right to Freedom.

Right to Freedom

Art. 19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

Art. 20 Protection in respect of conviction of offences.

Art. 21 Protection of life and personal liberty.

Art. 21A.

Right to Education.

Art. 22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right Against Exploitation

Art. 23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.

Art. 24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

Art. 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

Art. 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.

Art. 27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.

Art. 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art. 29 Protection of interests of minorities.

Art. 30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Removal of Right to Property (Art. 19(1) (f) & 31

The 44th Amendment of Indian Constitution removed the right to property from Part-III (Fundamental Rights) by deleting Arts. 19(1) (f) and 31 by amendment and by inserting in Part-XII, the Chapter–IV Right to Property Art. 300A.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

Art. 32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.

Art. 33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.

Art. 34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.

Art. 35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

Part IV. Directive Principles of State Policy

Art. 36 Definition.

Art. 37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.

Art. 38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.

Art. 39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.

Art. 39A Equal justice and free legal aid.

Art. 40 Organisation of village panchayats.

Art. 41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.

Art. 42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

Art. 43 Living wage, etc. for workers.

Art. 43A Participation of workers in management of industries.

Art. 43B The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.

Art. 44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.

Art. 45 Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.

Art. 46 Promotion of educational and economic interest of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.

Art. 47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

Art. 48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.

Art. 48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and Wildlife.

Art. 49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.

Art. 50 Separation of judiciary from executive.

Art. 51 Promotion. of international peace and security.

Part IVA

Art. 51A Fundamental Duties

Part V. The Union

The Executive

Art. 52 The President of India.

Art. 53 Executive power of the Union.

Art. 54 Election of President.

Art. 61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.

Art. 63 The Vice-President of India.

Art. 64 The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council or States.

Art. 65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his function during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence of President.

Art. 66 Election of Vice-President.

Art. 72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc. and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

Art. 74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.

Art. 76 Attorney-General for India.


Art. 79 Constitution of Parliament.

Art. 80 Composition of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

Art. 81 Composition of the House of the People (Lok Sabha).

Art. 83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.

Art. 84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.

Art. 85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.

Art. 86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.

Art. 87 Special address by the President.

Art. 88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney General as respect to Houses.

Art. 89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.

Art. 93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.

Art. 98 Secretariat of Parliament.

Art. 99 Oath of affirmation by members.

Art. 105 Powers, privileges, etc. of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.

Art. 108 Joint sitting of both House in certain cases.

Art. 109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

Art. 110 Definition of “Money Bills.”

Art. 111 Assent of Bills.

Art. 112 Annual financial statement (Budget).

Art. 114 Appropriation Bills.

Art. 115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

Art. 116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

Art. 117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Art. 119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.

Art. 120 Language to be used in Parliament.

Art. 122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

Legislative Powers of the President

Art. 123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

The Union Judiciary

Art. 124 Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court.

Art. 126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.

Art. 127 Appointment of ad hoc Judges.

Art. 128 Attendance of retired Judge at sittings of the Supreme Court.

Art. 129 Supreme Court to be a Court of record.

Art. 131 Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court.

Art. 132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in certain cases.

Art. 133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in regard to civil matters.

Art. 134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.

Art. 136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.

Art. 137 Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme Court.

Art. 141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.

Art. 143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.

Art. 144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.

Comptroller and Auditor-General of India

Art. 148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

Art. 149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.

Part VI: The States

Arts. 152–237

The Government at the State level: The Executive, The State Legislature, The High Courts and Subordinate Courts.

Part VIII:

Articles 239–242: The Union Territories

Part IX:

Arts. 243 to 243-O: The Panchayats.

Part IX A:

Arts. 243-P to 243-ZG: The Municipalities.

Part IX B:

Arts. 243-ZH to 243-ZT: The Co-operative Societies.

Part X:

Arts. 244–244A: The Scheduled and Tribal Areas.

Part XI:

Arts. 245–263: Relations between The Union and the States.

Part XII:

Arts. 264–300: Finance, property, contracts and suits.

Article 300A: Right to Property

Part XIIi

Arts. 301–307: Trade, Commerce and Industry within India.

Part XIv Services under the Union and the States.

Art. 309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.

Art. 311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.

Art. 312 All-India Services.

Art. 315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.

Art. 320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.


Articles 323A–323B: Tribunals

Part Xv Elections

Art. 324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.

Art. 325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.

Art. 326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Art. 329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

Part XVI Arts. 330–342 Special provisions for certain classes.

Part XVII Arts. 343–351 Official languages.

Part XVIII Arts. 352–360 Emergency Provisions.

Part XIx Miscellaneous.

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