*The sudden tremors or shaking of the earth’s crust is called an earthquake.

*The earth’s crust is made up of different parts of various sizes. They are called plates.

*Most of the earthquakes in the world are caused by the movements of the plates.

*‘Seismology’ deals with the study of earthquake.

*‘Richter scale’ and ‘Mercalli scale’ are the instruments to measure and record the magnitude and the intensity of an earthquake respectively.

Seismic Waves

*The place where the seismic waves originate beneath the earth’s surface is called the focus of the earthquake.

*The epicenter is that point on the ground surface which is closest to the focus.

*The waves generated by earthquake are called seismic waves and they are classified into 3 types such as:

i. Primary Waves (P Waves): These are the waves of short wavelength and high frequency. They are longitudinal waves and can travel through solid, liquid and gases.

ii. Secondary Waves(S Waves): These are the waves of short wave length and high frequency. They are transverse waves, which travel through all solid particles only.

iii. Surface Waves or Long Waves (L Waves): They are the waves of long wavelength, confined to the skin of the earth’s crust. It causes most of the earthquake’s structural damage.

Shadow Zones

*There are some specific areas where earthquake waves do not occur or occur rarely, such areas are termed as shadow zones.

*They are located between 105° and 140° from epicentre.

The Earthquake Zones in India

*The Indian plate is moving from south to north. That is why there are earthquakes in the Himalayan regions.

Volcanoes Realscape

There are three types of Volcanoes:

i. Active Volcanoes ii. Dormant Volcanoes iii. Extinct Volcanoes

Distribution of Earthquakes

Most of the world earthquakes occur in:

*The zones of young fold mountain.

*The zones of lodging and faulting.

*The zone of junction of continental and oceanic margin.

*The zone of active volcanoes.

*Along different plate boundaries.

The Traditional Zones of Earthquakes

i. Circum-Pacific belt

ii. Mid-Continental belt

iii. Mid-Atlantic belt

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